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A position opposing the colonization of Palestine on one or more of several grounds. Anti-Zionist may oppose the Zionist movement on religious grounds, as a contravention of Hebrew scripture[1] or betrayal of Judaism’s moral values,[2] including the emancipationist intellectual tradition.[3] These expressions align with the positions of many anti-Zionist persons of Jewish faith, their congregations and institutions.[4]

Other anti-Zionists oppose Zionism on ethical grounds: for its racial characterizations of Jews and others,[5] its perpetuation of apartheid,[6] as well as its links to imperialism and other forms of labor exploitation and accumulation.[7] Other opponents base their position on the inevitable gross violations of human rights, war crimes and crimes against humanity involved in bringing about Zionism’s objectives.[8]

[1]   Rabbi Yosef Becher, “The Torah and Political Zionism,” in EAFORD & AJAZ, Judaism or Zionism: What Difference for the Middle East? (London: Zed Pres, 1986), p. 17; Klaus Hermann, “Politics and the ‘Divine Promise’,” in ibid., pp. 18–39; Aviezar Revistsky, “Ultra-Orthodox & Anti-Zionist, My Jewish Learning , at:;.

[2]   Elmer Berger, The Jewish Dilemma (New York: Devin Adair, 1945); Berger, Judaism or Jewish Nationalism (New York: Bookman, 1957).

[3]   Joseph Schechla, “The Consequences of Conflating Religion, Race, Nationality and Citizenship,” al-majdal No. 43 (winter-spring 2010), pp. 10–16, at:

[4]   Thomas A. Kolsky, Jews against Zionism: The American Council for Judaism, 19421948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).

[5]   Roselle Tekiner, “Zionist Revival of the ‘Jewish Race’ Concept,” in EAFORD & AJAZ, op. cit., pp. 88–97; The International Organization for the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination, Zionism & Racism, proceedings of an international symposium (New Brunswick NJ: North America, 1979).

[6]   Benjamin Joseph, “Separation at the Wrong Time in history,” in Roselle Tekiner, Samir Abed-Rabbo and Norton Mezvinsky, Anti-Zionism: Analytical Reflections (Brattleboro VT: Amana Books, 1988), pp 136–54; Israel Shahak, “Zionism as a Recidivist Movement: Origin of Its Separatist Aims,” in ibid., pp. 290–312.

[7]   Abram Leon (Wajnsztok), The Jewish Question. A Marxist Interpretation (New York. London. Montreal. Sydney: Pathfinder Press, 1970), also at: and

[8]   John B. Quigley, Palestine and Israel: A Challenge to Justice (Durham NC and London: Duke University Press, 1990), at:; Richard Falk, “Slouching toward a Palestinian Holocaust,” in William A. Cook ed., The Plight of the Palestinians (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 55–61 Tanya Reinhart, “A Slow, Steady Genocide,” pp. 91–98; Francis A. Boyle, “Israel’s Crimes against Palestinians: War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity, Genocide,” pp. 259–62; Sally V and W. Thomas Mallison, The Palestine Question in International Law and World Order (London: Longman, 1986).