A position opposing the colonization of Palestine on one or more of several grounds. Anti-Zionist may oppose the Zionist movement on religious grounds, as a contravention of Hebrew scripture or betrayal of Judaism’s moral values, including the emancipationist intellectual tradition. These expressions align with the positions of many anti-Zionist persons of Jewish faith, their congregations and institutions.
Other anti-Zionists oppose Zionism on ethical grounds: for its racial characterizations of Jews and others, its perpetuation of apartheid, as well as its links to imperialism and other forms of labor exploitation and accumulation. Other opponents base their position on the inevitable gross violations of human rights, war crimes and crimes against humanity involved in bringing about Zionism’s objectives.
 Rabbi Yosef Becher, “The Torah and Political Zionism,” in EAFORD & AJAZ, Judaism or Zionism: What Difference for the Middle East? (London: Zed Pres, 1986), p. 17; Klaus Hermann, “Politics and the ‘Divine Promise’,” in ibid., pp. 18–39; Aviezar Revistsky, “Ultra-Orthodox & Anti-Zionist, My Jewish Learning , at: https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/ultra-orthodox-anti-zionist/;.
 Elmer Berger, The Jewish Dilemma (New York: Devin Adair, 1945); Berger, Judaism or Jewish Nationalism (New York: Bookman, 1957).
 Joseph Schechla, “The Consequences of Conflating Religion, Race, Nationality and Citizenship,” al-majdal No. 43 (winter-spring 2010), pp. 10–16, at: http://www.badil.org/en/publication/periodicals/al-majdal/item/1401-schechla-conflating-race-and-nationality.html.
 Thomas A. Kolsky, Jews against Zionism: The American Council for Judaism, 1942–1948 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990).
 Roselle Tekiner, “Zionist Revival of the ‘Jewish Race’ Concept,” in EAFORD & AJAZ, op. cit., pp. 88–97; The International Organization for the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination, Zionism & Racism, proceedings of an international symposium (New Brunswick NJ: North America, 1979).
 Benjamin Joseph, “Separation at the Wrong Time in history,” in Roselle Tekiner, Samir Abed-Rabbo and Norton Mezvinsky, Anti-Zionism: Analytical Reflections (Brattleboro VT: Amana Books, 1988), pp 136–54; Israel Shahak, “Zionism as a Recidivist Movement: Origin of Its Separatist Aims,” in ibid., pp. 290–312.
 Abram Leon (Wajnsztok), The Jewish Question. A Marxist Interpretation (New York. London. Montreal. Sydney: Pathfinder Press, 1970), also at: https://thecharnelhouse.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Abram-Leon-The-Jewish-Question-A-Marxist-Interpretation-1942.pdf and https://www.marxists.org/subject/jewish/leon/index.htm.
 John B. Quigley, Palestine and Israel: A Challenge to Justice (Durham NC and London: Duke University Press, 1990), at: https://books.google.com.eg/books?id=GX8jX9dJXIAC&pg=PP7&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false; Richard Falk, “Slouching toward a Palestinian Holocaust,” in William A. Cook ed., The Plight of the Palestinians (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 55–61 Tanya Reinhart, “A Slow, Steady Genocide,” pp. 91–98; Francis A. Boyle, “Israel’s Crimes against Palestinians: War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity, Genocide,” pp. 259–62; Sally V and W. Thomas Mallison, The Palestine Question in International Law and World Order (London: Longman, 1986).